Tag Archives: SFP

Factors to Consider for 10 GbE Network Deployment

Nowadays, 10 Gigabit Ethernet network has been very popular and been employed by large amount of enterprises in their corporate backbones, data centers, and server farms to support high-bandwidth applications. To achieve a reliable and cost-effective 10 Gigabit Ethernet network, here are several factors that you should take into consideration for the deployment.

More Cost-effective for SAN

Direct-attached storage, network attached storage and SAN are three types of storage in a network. Among them, SAN is the most flexible and scalable solution for data center and high-density applications. But SAN costs much and needs special training for the installation and maintainance of the Fibre Channel interconnect fabric. The internet small computer system interface (iSCSI), which allows 10GbE infrastructure to be used as a SAN fabric, makes 10 GbE an attractive interconnect fabric for SAN applications. Compared with Fibre Channel, 10GbE infrastructure is more favorable because it can reduce equipment and management costs, enhance server management, improve disaster recovery and deliver excellent performance.

More Efficient for the Server Edge

Many organizations try to optimize their data centers by seeking server virtualization, which can support several applications and operating systems on a single server by defining multiple virtual machines on the server. And this can help organizations to reduce server inventory, better utilize servers, and mange resources more efficiently. Server virtualization relies heavily on networking and storage. Virtual machines require lot of storage. The network connectivity between servers and storage must be fast enough to avoid bottlenecks. 10GbE can provide fast connectivity for virtualized environments.

Reducing Bottlenecks for the Aggregation Layer

Today, traffic at the edge of the network has increased dramatically. Gigabit Ethernet to the desktop has become more popular. Many people adopt Gigabit Ethernet to the desktop, increasing the oversubscription ratios of the rest of the network, which brings the bottleneck between large amounts of Gigabit traffic at the edge of the network and the aggregation layer or core. 10 GbE allows the aggregation layer to scale to meet the increasing demands of users and applications. It can well solve the bottleneck for its three advantages: 10 GbE link uses fewer fiber stands compared with Gigabit Ethernet aggregation, 10 GbE can support multi-gigabit streams and 10 GbE provides greater scalability, bringing a future-proof network.

Fiber Cabling Choices

To accomplish 10 GbE network deployment, three important factors should be considered, the type of fiber cable (MMF of MF), the type of 10 GbE physical interface and optics module (XENPAK, X2, XFP and SFP+). Form factor options are interoperable when 10 GbE physical interface type is the same on both ends of the fiber link. For example, 10GBASE-SR XFP on the left can be linked with one 10GBASE-SR SFP+ on the right. But 10GBASE-SR SFP+ can’t connect to one 10GBASE-LRM SFP+ at the other end of the link. And 10G SFP+ active optical cable, such as Cisco SFP-10G-AOC3M SFP+ active optical cable (as shown below) and Cisco SFP+ active optical cable, SFP-10G-AOC10M, is also a good choice.

Cisco SFP-10G-AOC3M Compatible 10G SFP+ Active Optical Cable

Copper Cabling Solutions

Other than fiber optic cabling solutions, there are also copper cabling solutions for 10GbE. Copper cabling solutions are suitable for short distance connections. There are three copper cabling solutions: 10GBASE-CX4, SFP+ direct attach copper cable and 10GBASE-T.

10GBASE-CX4 is the first 10 GbE standard. It’s economical and it allows very low latency, but it’s a too large form factor for high density port counts in aggregation switches. 10G SFP+ direct attach copper cable (10g copper SFP) is a popular copper solution for 10 Gigabit Ethernet, which has become the main choice for servers and storage devices in a rack for its low latency, small connector and reasonable cost. 10GBASE-T runs 10 GbE over Cat6a and Cat7 up to 100 m.

For Top of Rack Applications

A top-of-rack (ToR) switch is a switch with a low number of ports that sits at the very top or in the middle of a 19″ telco rack in data centers. A ToR switch provides a simple and low-cost way to easily add more capacity to a network. It connects several servers and other network components together in a single rack. ToR switch uses SFP+ to provide 10G network in an efficient 1U form factor. Each server and network storage device can be directly connected to the ToR switch, eliminating the need for intermediate patch panels. And the cabling outside the rack, the ToR switch uplink connection to the aggregation layer, simplifies moving racks. The figure below shows a 10GbE ToR switching solution for servers and network storage. Because the servers are virtualized, so the active-active server team can be distributed across two stacked witches, which can ensure physical redundancy for the servers while connected to the same logical switch. What’s more, failover protection can be offered if one physical link goes down.



10 Gigabit Ethernet network is not the fastest solution, but it is quite enough for common applications in our daily life. For a better and successful 10 Gigabit Ethernet network deployment, you need to take all those factors mentioned above into consideration. And it can also help you make better options about fiber or copper cabling solutions for your 10G networks.

1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet over Category 5 Cable

Various copper and fiber choices are available on the market today. When deciding a cabling system, network managers should know how to choose the most appropriate cabling system for their network infrastructure in the long run. Many of the cabling installed today inside buildings is Category 5. Many factors, like punch down blocks, and patch panel connections, affect the performance of 1000BASE-T technology if not correctly implemented. This article gives an introduction to 1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet operation over the installed base of Category 5 cabling.

1000BASE-T and Category 5 Cabling

1000BASE-T is a type of gigabit Ethernet networking technology that uses copper cables as a medium. 1000BASE-T uses four pairs of Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cables to achieve gigabit data rates. There should be no need to replace existing Category 5 cabling to use 1000BASE-T. The standard is designated as IEEE 802.3ab and allows 1Gbps data transfers for distances of up to 330 feet. 1000Base-T came into wide use in 1999, gradually replacing fast Ethernet for wired local networks simply because it was 10 times as fast. Equipment and cables are very similar to previous Ethernet standards and by 2011 were very common and economical. These were the biggest factors that ensured this standard’s wide acceptance. The 1000BASE-T product is designed to operate over Category 5 cabling. The image below shows how 1000BASE-T works.


Gigabit Bandwidth over Category 5 Cabling

1000BASE-T uses a symbol rate of 125 Mbaud (A 125 Mbaud symbol rate is required because 100BASE-TX uses 4B/5B coding), but it uses all four pairs for the link and a more sophisticated five-level coding scheme. In addition, 1000BASE-T sends and receives simultaneously on each pair. Combining 5-level coding and 4 pairs allows 1000BASE-T to send one byte in parallel at each signal pulse. 4 pairs 125 Msymbols/second X 2 bits/symbol = 1Gbps.

Problems During Cable Installation

Of course, it isn’t quite this simple. In addition to moving the symbols across the link, 1000BASE-T must also deal with the effects of return loss and crosstalk, and other factors.

Return loss measures the amount of reflected signal energy resulting from impedance changes in the cabling link. If too much energy is reflected back onto the receiver, the device does not perform optimally. Factors that affect the return loss are:

  • The number of transition points, as there is a connection through an RJ-45 to another connector, a patch panel, or device at each transition point.
  • Removing the jacket that surrounds the four pairs of twisted cable. When RJ-45 connections are made, this is minimized to 1 1/4 inch (32 mm).
  • Untwisting any pair of the twisted-pair cabling. It is important that any untwisting be minimized to 3/8 inch (10 mm) for RJ-45 connections.
  • Cabling or bundling of multiple Category 5 cables. If not correctly implemented, this can adversely affect all cabling settings.

Crosstalk is unwanted signals coupled between adjacent wire pairs. Since 1000BASE-T uses all four wire pairs, each pair is affected by crosstalk from the adjacent three pairs. Near-end crosstalk (NEXT) is crosstalk that appears at the output of a wire pair at the transmitter (near) end of the cable. Far-end crosstalk (FEXT) is a measure of the unwanted signal coupling from a transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring pair measured at the far-end. Crosstalk is characterized in reference to the transmitter.


For optimum performance of your 1000BASE-T product, it is important to fully qualify your cable installation and ensure that it meets or exceeds Category 5 specifications. Fiberstore provides various Category 5 cables and 1000BASE-T optical transceivers for your applications. For example, Finisar FCLF-8520-3 1000BASE-T copper SFP RJ-45 transceiver, and Cisco GLC-T 1000BASE-T SFP copper RJ-45 transceiver, are compliant with the Gigabit Ethernet and 1000BASE-T standards as specified in IEEE 802.3 and 802.3ab. These SFP transceivers link your switches and routers to the network. They are 100% functionally tested, and compatibility is guaranteed.

What Are the Differences of SFP, SFP+, XFP?

SFP, SFP+, and XFP are all terms for a type of transceiver that plugs into a special port on a switch or other network device to convert the port to a copper or fiber interface. These compact transceivers replace the older, bulkier GBIC interface. All these three compact transceivers are hot-swappable and commonly used. It’s easy to change interfaces on the fly for upgrades and maintenance without shutting down a switch to swap out a module. These modules are good solutions in having a great quality signal delivered. Which kind of module should you choose? Your choice needs to be based on your understanding of what they are and how they differ from each other.

What Are SFP, SFP+ and XFP?

SFP: SFP stands for small form-factor pluggable. SFP transceiver is a compact, hot-pluggable transceiver used for both telecommunication and data communications applications. The form factor and electrical interface are specified by a multi-source agreement (MSA). These modules can link equipment like routers and switches. SFP transceivers are designed to support SONET, gigabit Ethernet, Fibre Channel, and other communications standards. For every type of SFP transceiver, it works with different wavelengths at a designated location or distance. SX SFP uses 850nm for a maximum of 550 meters, LX SFP use 1310nm for a maximum 10km, ZX SFP could reach 80km. Copper SFP uses a RJ45 interface. It is a popular industry format jointly developed and supported by many network component vendors.

SFP+: SFP+ is an enhanced version of the SFP. The SFP+ specification was first published on May 9, 2006. SFP+ supports 8 Gbit/s Fibre Channel, 10 Gigabit Ethernet and optical transport network standard OTU2. It is a popular industry format supported by many network component vendors. Although the SFP+ standard does not include mention of 16G Fibre Channel it can be used at this speed.

XFP: XFP stands for 10 Gigabit small form factor pluggable. XFP modules are hot-swappable and protocol-independent. With XFP you will surely experience a fast transmission of data in your computer network including your telecommunication links. They typically operate at near-infrared wavelengths (colors) of 850 nm, 1310 nm or 1550 nm. Principal applications include 10 Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gbit/s Fibre Channel, synchronous optical networking (SONET) at OC-192 rates, synchronous optical networking STM-64, 10Gbit/s optical transport network OTU-2, and parallel optics links. They can operate over a single wavelength or use dense wavelength-division multiplexing techniques.


What Are the Differences?

The main difference between SFP and SFP+ is that the SFP+ is used in Gigabit Ethernet applications while SFP is for 100BASE or 1000BASE applications. SFP+ transceivers use the same dimensions of pluggable transceivers in the 10Gbs Ethernet and 8.5Gbs fiber channel with SFP and SFP comply with standards of IEEE802.3 and SFF-8472.


Generally speaking, both of them are 10G fiber optical modules and can connect with other type of 10G modules. In comparison to earlier XFP modules, SFP+ modules leave more circuitry to be implemented on the host board instead of inside the module. The size of SFP+ is smaller than XFP, thus it moves some functions to motherboard, including signal modulation function, MAC, CDR and EDC. XFP is based on the standard of XFP MSA while SFP+ is compliance with the protocol of IEEE 802.3ae, SFF-8431, SFF-8432.

Fiberstore is a professional manufacturer and supplier for optical fiber products and provides various kinds of SFP, SFP+ and XFP transceivers branded by many famous companies, like Cisco, HP, and Finisar. For example, Cisco XFP-10G-MM-SR, XFP-10GLR-OC192SR, XFP-10GER-192IR+ XFP transceivers, and HP JD118B, JD119B, J9142B SFP transceivers offered by Fiberstore are the most cost-effective standards-based transceiver modules and fully compatible with major brands and backed by a lifetime warranty.

Optical Transceivers for 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Just as 10 gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) technologies have changed, so have the cabling technologies that support them and the devices that connect the cabling to their network. Optical transceivers provide the interface between the equipment sending and receiving data and the cabling transporting it. Just as there are distinct cabling technologies that coincide with 10 gigabit technologies, various transceivers are also available to match each cabling standard. 10 gigabit Ethernet has mainly four defined optical transceiver types. These optical transceivers are the result of multi-source agreement (MSA) which enables vendors to produce 802.3ae-compliant pluggable transceivers. This post will give a brief introduction to these four types of transceivers—XENPAK, X2, XFP, and SFP+.


XENPAK, the first 10 gigabit Ethernet pluggable transceivers on the market to support the 802.3ae standard transmission optics. They are large, bulky and used mainly in LAN switches. These transceivers are “hot pluggable” and support the new 802.3ak copper standard with vendors now producing transceivers to connect CX4 cables. XENPAK is a highly integrated, serial optical transponder module for high-speed, 10Gbit/s data transmission and offers a wide variety of 10 gigabit Ethernet connectivity options for data center, enterprise wiring closet, and service provider transport applications. It is designed to transmit and receive optical data of link length of 300m, 10km, 20km, 40km, up to 80km. XENPAK 10GB solution include dual fiber XENPAK, CWDM XENPAK and DWDM XENPAK modules which enable high port densities for 10 gigabit Ethernet systems.


X2, the smaller brother of the XENPAK pluggable transceiver, is about 2/3 the size of the XENPAK transceiver module. With the same “hot pluggable” specifications and supporting all the 10 gigabit Ethernet standards (including copper), the X2 form factor allows for more port density on switches. X2 fiber optic transceiver module is used in datacom optical links only (not telecom). Its electrical interface to the host board is also standardized and is called XAUI (10 Gigabit attachment unit interface). X2 uses the same 70-pin electrical connector as XENPAK and supports implementations of XENPAK’s four lane XAUI at both Ethernet (3.125 Gbit/s) and/or Fiber Channel (3.1875 Gbit/s) rates. X2 will also support serial electrical interfaces as they may emerge in XENPAK, as well as ongoing maintenance. There are 300m, 10km, 20km, 40km, 80km X2 optical modules, like Cisco X2-10GB-SR, X2-10GB-ER and X2-10GB-ZR, which provides customers with a strong sense of assurance that this technology is a good choice and will have strong vendor support. The picture below shows a XENPAK transceiver and an X2 transceiver.



XFP modules are hot-swappable and protocol-independent. They typically operate at near-infrared wavelengths (colors) of 850 nm, 1310 nm or 1550 nm. Principal applications include 10 gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gbit/s Fibre Channel, synchronous optical networking (SONET) at OC-192 rates, synchronous optical networking STM-64, 10 Gbit/s optical transport network (OTN) OTU2, and parallel optics links. They can operate over a single wavelength or use dense wavelength-division multiplexing techniques. They include digital diagnostics that provide management added to the SFF-8472 standard. XFP modules use an LC fiber connector type to achieve higher density. The positive aspect of the XFP form factor is it will allow switch vendors to increase port density in a smaller area for cost savings. A drawback of the XFP will be its inability to support the current copper (802.3ak) or the 10GBASE-LX4 standards.


SFP+, the enhanced version of the SFP, supports data rates up to 16 Gbit/s. It is a popular industry format supported by many network component vendors. In comparison to earlier XENPAK or XFP modules, SFP+ modules leave more circuitry to be implemented on the host board instead of inside the module. Consideration has to be given to whether the module is linear or limiting. Linear SFP+ modules are most appropriate for 10GBASE-LRM; otherwise, limiting modules are preferred. SFP+ also introduces direct attach for connecting two SFP+ ports without dedicated transceivers. SFP+ supports 8 Gbit/s Fibre Channel, 10 Gigabit Ethernet and Optical Transport Network standard OTU2. Although the SFP+ standard does not include mention of 16G Fibre Channel, it can be used at this speed. The picture below shows an XFP transceiver and an SFP+ transceiver.

XFP and SFP+

Fiberstore is a professional manufacturer and supplier for good quality optical transceivers products. They offer these four kinds of optical transceiver modules for 10 gigabit Ethernet cabling applications. For example, Cisco XFP-10G-MM-SR, FTLX8512D3BCL XFP and FTLX8571D3BCL SFP+ branded by Finisar are for 10GBASE-SR; Cisco XFP-10GLR-OC192SR and HP 455886-B21 SFP+ are for 10GBASE-LR.

Basic Knowledge of Optical Transceiver Module

In optical fiber communication field, optical transceiver module is very important and widely used by communication systems and local area networks (LANs) built in big companies for both conversion and transmission functions. Receiving the basic knowledge about the optical transceiver modules is an important first step for those who plan to go depth into the fiber optic communication industrial. This text will provide some basic information on optical transceiver module, hoping it to help you easily understand the fiber optic transceiver working principle, its types and even facilitate you choosing the correct target transceiver modules for use in the feature.

Structure of Optical Transceiver Module

An optical transceiver module, also called fiber optic transmitter and receiver, is a device comprising both a transmitter and a receiver which are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing. It transmits on one direction on one fiber and on another fiber in the reverse direction. The role of optical transceiver module is photoelectric conversion.

Working Principle of Optical Transceiver Module

In the fiber optics, information is sent in the form of pulses of the light. The light pulses have to be converted into electrical ones in order to be utilized by an electronic device. Optical transceiver module includes both transmitter and receiver inside. The work process is: in its fiber optic data links, the transmitter takes in an electrical signal and then converts it into an optical one with the light source device like a laser diode or light-emitting diode (LED). The light converted from the transmitter is then coupled into the fiber with a connector and is transmitted through the fiber cable plant outside. The light from the end of the cable is coupled to a receiver, where a detector converts the light back into an electrical signal and finally adopted by the receiver equipment. The working principle is shown below.

working principle of transceiver

Types of Optical Transceiver Module

There are a number of different fiber optic types available in the market. They differ in the type of connections, data transmission speed, as well as packing forms. Some common types of fiber optic transceiver modules popular in the market are SFP transceiver, SFP+ transceiver, XFP transceiver, X2 transceiver, XENPAK transceiver, CFP transceiver and so on. And connector types for fiber optic transceivers are various, including D4, ESCON, FC, FDDI, LC, MTP, MT-RJ, MU, SC, SMA, ST, etc. The following picture shows an XFP transceiver.


Applications of Optical Transceiver Module

Fiber optic transceivers are designed for use with single mode or multi-mode cable. Single-mode fibers transmit infrared laser light at wavelength from 1300 to 1550 nm. They have small cores and are used with laser sources for high speed and long distance links. Multi-mode fibers have larger cores and are used mainly with LED sources for lower speed, shorter distance links. The typical transmission speeds and distance limits are 100 Mbit/s for up to 2km, 1Gbit/s to 220-550m, and 10Gbit/s to 300m. Other applications include FTTH (GPON, EPON, Point to Point), Base Station, Fibre Channel and Ethernet systems (from 100Mbps to 10Gbps with different form factor SFP, XFP and SFP+).

Several major brands, like Cisco, HP, Juniper, and Finisar, they manufacture various optical transceiver modules with high quality, for example, XFP-10GLR-OC192SR, X2-10GB-ZR and X2-10GB-ER branded by Cisco, JD093B, J9142B and JD119B branded by HP, and FTLF8519P3BNL, FTLF1319P1BTL, and FTLF1217P2BTL branded by Finisar. Every different transceiver meets different applications, so before you buy it you should learn about more details about them.