To support the changing and fast-growing bandwidth demands of data centers (DCs), the IEEE ratified standards for supporting 40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GE) and 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GE), known as IEEE 802.3ba. 40GE and 100 GE belong to a family of network technologies that primarily are used in local area networks. As they are becoming more and more popular, it is very necessary to know more about them. This post offers a quick-reference guide to increase your familiarity with issues in the migration to 40 and 100GE systems.
Both 40 and 100 Gigabit Ethernet can be deployed using the same cabling systems in use today. Multi-mode will employ parallel optics using MPO interconnects and require additional cable infrastructure depending on the system deployed while single mode fiber will employ serial transmission and use LC or SC connectors. The approach used for the higher speed data rates is based on advanced transceiver technologies engineered to take advantage of the full bandwidth of laser optimized fibers. Both single mode fiber (SMF) and multi-mode fiber (OM3, OM4) were approved in the standard.
- 40GBase-SR4: multimode fiber with four fiber pairs (OM3/OM4)
- 40GBase-LR4: single-mode fiber pairs with 4 wavelengths a 10Gbit/s at 10 km
- 40GBase-KR4: short distances in the backplane (4 pairs of wires)
- 40GBase-CR4: twinax cable with 4 pairs
- 100GBase-CR10: twinax cable with 10 pairs
- 100GBase-SR10: multimode fiber with 10 fiber pairs (OM3/OM4)
- 100GBase-SR10: single-mode fiber pairs with 4 wavelengths a 25Gbit/s at 10 km
- 100GBase-ER4: single-mode fiber pairs with 4 wavelengths a 25Gbit/s at 40 km
QSFP: The QSFP (quad small-form-factor pluggable) is the primary way of delivering 40GE and are now appearing in 100GbE-capable form. These present either MPO connectors for multi-mode optics or LC connectors for single-mode optics. It is similar in size to the CXP and provides four transmit and four receive lanes to support 40GbE applications. QSFP+ (quad small form-factor pluggable plus), as the updated version of QSFP, is a new multi-source agreement (MSA) for high speed application. QSFP+ gradually replace QSFP and is widely used by people as it can provide higher bandwidth. The following picture shows an Avaya AA1404001-E6 compatible QSFP+ transceiver.
CFP: The CFP (C form-factor pluggable) transceiver features twelve transmit and twelve receive 10Gb/s lanes to support one 100GbE port, or up to three 40GbE ports. CFP form factor optics are available in 40GbE and 100GbE varieties. Its larger size is suitable for the needs of single-mode optics and can easily serve multi-mode optics or copper as well. These present MPO connectors for multi-mode optics or SC connectors for single-mode optics. CFP modules use the 10-lane CAUI-10 electrical interface.
CFP2: The CFP2 is an evolution of the existing CFP form factor, using manufacturing and optics advances to reduce the size of the module to approximately half that of the original CFP, allowing for higher interface density. CFP2 modules use the 10-lane CAUI-10 electrical interface or the 4-lane CAUI-4 electrical interface.
40GE and 100GE fulfill the following requirements and objectives:
- Preserve existing 802.3 frame format, minimum size, and maximum size.
- Support high-speed switching, routing, and application functions in data centers.
- Exhibit a bit error rate (BER) of 10-12 or better.
- Provide support for optical transport network (OTN).
- Provide specifications for operation over single-mode optical fiber, laser optimized multimode optical fiber, copper cables, and backplanes.
- Support high-bandwidth applications such as video on demand (VoD) and high-performance computing (HPC).
The throughput and reliability of a 40/100 Gigabit Ethernet installation is directly related to the cabling, the choice of connectivity, and proper installation. Fiberstore’s superior cable and connectivity designs provides you with superior levels of performance and operation. We offer all kinds of cables and transceiver modules for your applications, such as Dell Force10 GP-QSFP-40GE-1SR 40GBASE-SR4 QSFP+ transceiver, or Juniper QFX-QSFP-DAC-3M compatible QSFP+ to QSFP+ passive copper cable, and so on. You can buy from us with confidence.